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The centrifugal air compressor is a dynamic compressor which depends on the transfer to energy from a rotating impeller to the air.
Centrifugal compressors produce high-pressure converting angular momentum imparted by the rotating impeller. The centrifugal compressors rotating at higher speeds than the other types of compressors. These types of compressors are also designed for higher capacity to work because flow through the Air compressor is continuous.
The inlet guide vanes are the most common method to control the capacity of a centrifugal compressor by closing the guide vanes, volumetric flows and capacity are reduced.
The centrifugal air compressor is an oil-free compressor. The oil lubricated running gear is separated to the air by shaft seals and atmospheric vents.
In this article, we will cover each and every point related to the centrifugal compressor or sometimes called the radial compressor.
The centrifugal compressor is quite different from that of a reciprocating or rotary type compressor. The air passes through the rotating impeller it experiences force or work which is called by centrifugal forces. The increase in pressure and velocity or speed of the air flow through the impeller. The air flow loses its velocity after entering in the different section. The actually a fixed or static component that escorts the air flow when it leaves the impeller. This loss in velocity results in an additional increase of pressure. The impeller and the diffuser contribute about 65% and 35% of the total pressure developed in the centrifugal compressor.
1. Casing and inlet: The mentioned components are usually protected or guarded by a casing or housing. A case house consists of the number of bearings in order to provide radial and axial support of the rotor. The cases also contain nozzles along with inlets and discharge flow connections in order to introduce and extract flow from the compressor.
Casings are of two types:-
a.) Horizontally split
b.) Vertically split
The impellers are used to assemble on a steel shaft and this assembly is known as compressor rotor. The rotor provides high velocity to the gas with the blades that are attached to a rotating disc. These blades can be used to forward-leaning, radial or backward-leaning depending to upon the desired output. Mostly the multistage compressors use backward-leaning blades as they provide the widest range of efficiency.
The impeller has extracted the gas with high velocity into a diffuser passage. The diffuser usually compromises two walls which form a radial channel. Because of these arrangements, this velocity of the gas decreases and dynamic pressure is converted into static pressure. The diffuser passages are small space between adjacent diaphragms which generally turns to the gas flow 180° in order to direct it used for towards the next impeller.
The last stage impeller the gas must be collected and transfer to the discharge flange. The component used to the collect gas discharged through the diffuser is called as the collector, Maybe termed as volute or scroll. The collector may also contain valves and other used instrumentation in order to control the compressor.
There are two types of it:
1. Single stage centrifugal compressor
2. Multi-stage centrifugal compressor
This compressor works on the same principle.
1. Single stage compressor.
Single stage compressors consist of only a single impeller and it is used for moving the air or other gases up to 3 to 1 compression ratio for either pressure. This compressor is considered to have a beam design or an overhung impeller arrangement. This type of impeller arrangement is used the non-driving end of the shaft. One major advantage of the multistage compressor is that it provides high efficiency and the delivered gas is totally oil and surge free.
2. Multistage compressor.
Multistage compressors consist of 1-10 impellers and it can be arranged in a variety of flow path configurations. The temperature and the compression ratio in every stage are assumed to be constant. Mostly Multistage compressor arranged in straight-through, compound and double flow configurations. The multistage compressor is also considered to have the beam-type design but the impellers are located between the .
Applications of centrifugal compressor:
1. Compressed gas or air: Centrifugal compressor is one of the most simple and efficient ways to obtain or produce compressed air. They are best suited when the demand for air or gas is constant and excessive.
2. Food Industry: Food processing industry depends highly used in this type of compressor as it can provide oil-free compressed air which is necessary for some sensitive petitions.
3. Gas turbines: Gas turbines are used in both axial and centrifugal compressor to provide the necessary compression.
Centrifugal compressors are mostly used in such as:
c.) Microturbines and
d.) Auxiliary power units
4. Oil refiners, petrochemical and chemical plants: The centrifugal compressors used for the above purposes area. Generally, a horizontally split casing and most of them are used multistage compressors. These types of compressors are generally operated by over-sized steam engines and gas turbines.
5. Refrigeration and air control: Centrifugal Compressors is a wide variety of refrigerants, thermodynamics and are also able to supply compression in water chiller cycles. It has a high demand for use in refrigerators and air conditioners.
§ a.) It is relatively agile and easy for the manufacturer to other compressors.
§ b.) This compressor does not require any special foundation and highly energy efficient and reliable.
§ c.) They consist of a small number of rubbing parts and oil-free in nature.
§ d.) It generates per stage higher pressure ratio than the axial flow compressor.
§ a.) They produce a limited amount of pressure and not suitable for very high compression.
§ b.) They worked relatively high speed an enlightened or worldly mounting is required.
§ c.) They are very sensitive problems such as stalling and choking.
This is all specification centrifugal compressor principle, working, construction, types, advantages, disadvantages. If you like this article, don’t forget to share it on the social network. Subscribe our website for more informative articles.